Updated: Nov 28, 2020
DNA chips or microarray are some of the most recent developments in cancer research; it assists in the pharmacological approach to the #treatment of different diseases, including oral lesions. Microarray helps to evaluate vast numbers of previously reported samples or new samples; it also helps to assess the frequency of a specific tumour marker. Until recently, the use of microarrays in dentistry has been very small, but in the future, its use will increase as the technology becomes affordable.
Here, we describe the various microarray or DNA chip methods and applications. It paved the way for several studies and research once the human genome sequence was completed in 2001; one such field was identifying the regions of DNA that regulate normal and disease states. Functional genomics is the study of gene function by measurements of a genome through parallel expression.
Complementary #DNA microarrays, oligonucleotide #microarrays, or serial gene expression analysis (SAGE) are the most common methods used to carry out these measurements. Microarray analysis is divided into two main steps: development of the probe and development of the target. Relevant sequences are immobilised and responded to a surface with cDNA targets named.
In the unidentified target sample, a signal resulting from genetic modification of the labelled target with the unique immobilised probe identifies increasing RNAs are present. In dental practise, prevention, diagnosis, and care are focused on an understanding of the biology of underlying oral health and disease. There can be few dimensions of medical care unaffected by today's rapid developments in biological science.
Dentists may use cheap but remarkably advanced diagnostic tests in the future to diagnose infection, oral lesions, and temporomandibular dysfunction (#TMD) symptoms. The minor changes in the DNA sequence that lead to different traits are known as polymorphisms, which can also cause or lead to the improvement of many disorders and diseases. The microarray technique can easily classify these genetic variations.
Microarray provides a framework for genotyping lots of different loci at a time, which is useful to separate chromosomal regions linked to a specific disease in association and linkage studies. This #array can also be used to locate cancer-related chromosomal aberrations, such as fragments of allelic mismatch that can be detected by heterozygosity loss. It is possible to distinguish enhanced or deleted regions in the chromosomes by comparative genomic hybridization techniques on genomic DNA, such as in the case of oral cancer.
Gene microarray #technique is based on the ability to deposit on a small surface, usually a glass slide (often referred to as a 'chip'), several different DNA sequences. In rows and columns, the numerous DNA fragments are organised such that the existence of each fragment is known via its position in the series. Two kinds of microarrays are the microarray of gene expression and the tissue microarray.
For only a few genes per experiment, techniques such as Northern blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction allow research. But not only does microarray or "world expression profiling" look at orders of magnitude of more genes than previously possible, but it also has the advantage that the genes tested weren’t affected by gene preselection.
Increased numbers of resistant bacteria and over-added infections have resulted in antibiotic failure. The result of the disease process is also influenced by the virulence of the bacterial strains. They are often not easily cultivated in oral cavities where anaerobic bacteria may be the infective agent, especially organisms such as actinomyces.
As the bacterial genomic DNA sometimes outlasts the viability of the bacteria. DNA microarray analysis helps and a diagnosis can be made using a limited amount of DNA, as opposed to the large amounts of bacteria required for culture. In the future, an abscess sample might be submitted for DNA microarray analysis rather than for nature and sensitivity testing.
Sequential shifts in hundreds of cells and differences in genes are involved in tumour formation. As it offers a forum for simultaneous testing of a wide collection of genetic samples, Microarray can be a blessing to researchers. In particular, it helps to recognise single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs) and mutations, to distinguish cancers, to recognise tumour suppressor target genes, to identify cancer biomarkers, to identify chemoresistance-associated genes, and to discover medicines.
For instance, between a group of cancer patients and a group of normal patients, we may compare the distinct patterns of gene expression levels and identify the gene associated with that specific cancer. For comparative genomic hybridization, gene microarrays have been utilised. Genomic DNA is fluorescently labelled and used in this method to determine the existence of gene loss or amplification.
In a wide variety of tumours, including breast carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, fallopian tube carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, melanoma, and lymphoma, array-based comparative genomic hybridization has been used to map genetic anomalies. Data on gene expression may distinguish classes of cases with substantially different outcomes where subclassification is not allowed by routine histopathological review.
In this article, a brief outline of the technique behind DNA Chips and their different steps are discussed. Although the technique is currently limited in its #applications because of the cost factor, it may expand its prospects once the supply of commercial goods increases. The ability to document and examine vast numbers of old samples for different genetic changes helps to explain the principle of molecular biology.
For the study of diseases in the oral cavity, microarrays hold a lot of promise. DNA, RNA, or protein profile #classifications of oral disease would significantly improve our ability to identify, prevent, track and manage our patients. Microarrays are presently mainly a research tool. Microarrays offer a more biologically based, individualised, and dramatically improved oral care norm that will have a significant clinical effect on the future practise of dentistry.