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Interfacing DC motor with Arduino

Updated: Mar 17

A DC motor is an electric motor that converts direct electrical current energy into mechanical energy, mostly all DC motor works on the same mechanism for periodically changing the direction of current in the motor. Through this article one can learn how to interface a DC #l293d DC motor with #Arduino, along with the coding and circuit diagram.


Hardware List

The image shows the list of components needed. Let's have a quick look at each of them.


List of components
List of components

What is a Bread Board?

A breadboard is a rectangular board with small holes in it that are used for connecting elements. The connections are not fixed and can be varied. In a breadboard, all the holes in one horizontal line are in series connection with each other. Breadboards are made from plastic and come in all shapes, sizes, and even different colors, the most common sizes are "full-size," "half-size," and "mini" breadboards.


BreadBoard
BreadBoard

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What is an Arduino Board?

Arduino Board can address inputs such as light on a sensor, Twitter information, a finger on a button, and turn it to an output such as initiating a motor, turning on an LED, advertising something online. All of this can be done by transferring a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board by the use of the Arduino programming language.


ARDUINO
ARDUINO

Wanna buy an Arduino here's the link:- https://amzn.to/3iCbCFW


l293d motor driver:-The Pin Diagram of an l293d DC motor is as shown. The VSS is where the power supply is given. IN4 and IN3 will be used for direction control. OUT4 and OUT3 will be connected to the DC motor. The 12 and 13 GND pin will be grounded. Enable (EN) is used to control the speed of the DC motor.


l293d DC motor pin diagram
l293d DC motor pin diagram

Jumper wires:- Jumper wires are used to establish a connection between different elements in the circuit and the Arduino board.



Jumper Wires
Jumper Wires


Buy jumper wires:- https://amzn.to/3jGvoBm


Circuit Diagram for dc motor

The circuit connections are as follows, The power terminal that is VSS is connected to the positive terminal of the breadboard which is further connected to the 5v of the Arduino board. The input 4 (IN4) is connected to the 4th pin of the Arduino chip, while the output 4 (OUT4) pin is connected to the DC motor. Both the ground pins are grounded on the negative terminal. Output 3 (OUT3) is again connected to the DC motor. Input 3 (IN3) is connected to pin 3 of the Arduino board. The enable (EN2) is connected to pin number 2 of the Adruino board.


There is an external power supply used because Arduino alone cannot handle the DC motor. The positive terminal of the power supply is connected to the positive of the breadboard which further is connected to the VS of the DC motor for extra power. The negative terminal of the power supply is connected to the ground of the breadboard



Code




DC motor working

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Video by:- Kaushik Ram Selvaraj


The interfacing gives an overview of how to interface a DC motor with Arduino and use it to rotate a fan. Similarly, numerous other applications can be designed for more knowledge purposes. Small DC motors find applications in tools, gadgets, and appliances. Larger DC motors are currently employed in the propulsion of electric vehicles, elevators, hoists, etc.


 

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2 Comments


Anushka Gupta
Anushka Gupta
Jul 26, 2023

Hats off to Learn Electronics India for demystifying the complexities of interfacing DC motors with Arduino. The clarity of your explanations and the inclusion of practical examples made this blog a true gem. I feel empowered to experiment with various Arduino-driven projects now.

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Brilliant explanation! Thanks, LearnElectronics India!

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