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Gas Leakage Detection

Updated: Aug 18, 2023

4,200 home structure fires per year started with the ignition of natural gas. That is a frightening statistic. About 40 people die every year because of gas leaks. That's why a sensitive, secure and efficient gas leakage detection system is more than necessary. Fortunately, our homes nowadays are already equipped with some or the other gas detection technology. However, at the heart of this technology is just a simple gas sensor and a circuit. Today, we'll simulate a gas leakage detection circuit using a 8051 Microcontroller.

These things are used to detect gas leaks in factories and in labs, where even a small amount of gas can cause huge disasters.
A Gas Leak Detector
The components

In this project, we want to simulate a gas leak detector, so the obvious component we'll require is a sensor. Our setup is a simple one. We'll connect the sensor to our controller, which processes the data collected by the sensor and performs tasks according to that data. One of the tasks is turning on a red LED indicating that a gas leak has been detected. We also want to display the amount of gas being detected on an LCD. And finally, we want a way to reset the alarm manually with a push button. This circuit diagram would help you better visualise how these components are set up.

Component Diagram
Component Diagram

Code Explanation

As you might already know, the 8051 Microcontroller uses C++ as the programming language. We'll be working this project out in a procedural way, using multiple functions to make our code easier to understand. As before starting any code, we'll first initialise our constants. Here, our constants are the pins that the microcontroller is using to connect to the various components in the circuit. The first function would be a delay function, which will help us get the sensor data after set intervals. The delay function is just a for loop that makes the program stop for a certain period of time. Then we write a CMD function to initialise the LCD, it sets all the LCD values to 0 to make it ready to take in data. The ldata function provides the LCD with a string to display after the delay that we defined earlier. Once all these functions are defined, we'll use them in the main function that is going to be the final function.

In the main function, we first make sure that the LCD is in its initial state. Then we write an infinite while loop to check if the gas sensor is detecting any gas leakage, if the value returned by the sensor is "1", we'll continue and turn on the red LED. The LCD also needs to be updated with "GAS DETECTED". And finally, when the gas sensor goes back to "0", we turn OFF the LED and the LCD goes to "GAS NOT DETECTED".


Code



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